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Background: Recent developments in the drug industry, together with improved access of many populations to orthodox medications, have contributed to the increase in global medication consumption. Inadequate disposal of unused medication is a cause of concern to public health. Objectives: This study assessed the knowledge and practice of disposal of unused medicine among pharmacists and patients in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Anambra State, Nigeria. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional retrospective study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of NAUTH. Seventy practicing pharmacists and 300 patients undergoing treatment in the tertiary health-care facility participated in the study. Descriptive statistics were used in the overall analysis. Results were summarized as frequencies and percentages. Results: About 189 (51.1%) of the respondents indicated that disposal of unused medicine in thrash was one of the most common means of medicine disposal while 222 (60%) respondents indicated that self-discontinuation was the cause of availability of drugs in most homes. About 284 (76.8%) respondents indicated that improper disposal of medicines increased the risk of environmental hazard. About 189 (51.1%) respondents stated that most drug consumers disposed their unused medicine in the trash bin while 196 (53.0%) respondents stated that they were not educated on medication disposal methods. Conclusion: The pharmacists and patients in NAUTH, Nigeria, had no form of education on safe disposal of unused medication. Adequate awareness should be created, and guidelines put in place to ensure proper disposal of unused medicines.
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